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Verbos pronominales

verbos pronominales

Los verbos pronominales en inglés y español

A veces los verbos pronominales son totalmente diferentes en significado.

Sometimes pronominal verbs are radically different in meaning: 

Ejemplos de los verbos pronominales

cambiar: to change / cambiarse de: to change clothes, house

SpanishEnglish
Yo cambié de trabajo.I changed my job.
Ella se cambió de ropa.She changed her clothes.
She got changed 

desenvolver:  to unwrap / desenvolverse: to get ahead, to be good at something.

SpanishEnglish
Desenvuelve el regalo, por favor.Unwrap the gift, please.
Me desenvolví solo.I got ahead by myself.

despedir: to see someone off, to fire, to sack / verbo pronominal despedirse: to say goodbye, to take one’s leave.

SpanishEnglish
Te voy a despedir del trabajo.I am going to fire you / I am going to sack you 
Te acompaño al aeropuerto a despedirteI am going to see you off at the airport.
No se despidieron.They didn’t say goodbye.

EMPEÑAR VS EMPEÑARSE

empeñar: to pawn, to pledge / empeñarse: to insist on doing something

SpanishEnglish
Tuve que empeñar mis joyas.I had to pawn my jewellery.
Ellos se empeñan en ir a la fiestaThey insist on going to the party

gastar: to spend / gastarse: to wear out 

SpanishEnglish
Ayer gasté mucho dinero.Yesterday, I spent a lot of money.
Estos zapatos se gastaron la semana pasadaThese shoes wore out last week.

llevar: to take, to wear / / verbo pronominal llevarse: to take with one / to steal / to get along

SpanishEnglish
Llevo a mi hija al colegio. Llevo una camisa puesta.I take my daughter to school. I am wearing a shirt
Me (la) llevo bien con Juan. Se llevaron mi móvil.I get along with Juan. They took my phone with them.

mudar: to change  / mudarse: to move house

SpanishEnglish
Ella mudó de dientes.She had her teeth changed.
Ella se mudó de casaShe moved house

negar: to deny  / negarse a: to refuse to do something 

SpanishEnglish
Ella negó lo acontecido.She denied what happened.
Ellos se negaron a colaborar.They refused to collaborate.

oponer:  to contrast two views / oponerse: to oppose

SpanishEnglish
Opuso resistenciaHe put up resistance
Me opongo a la guerra.I oppose war.

VERBOS PARA ENFATIZAR

A veces los verbos pronominales solo sirven para enfatizar una acción.

Sometimes, the pronominal verbs are just used to emphasise an action.

Ejemplos:

Forma no pronominal: Aprender (to learn)   // Forma pronominal: aprenderse (to learn)

SpanishEnglish
Aprendí mucho con ella.I learnt a lot with her.
Me aprendí toda la clase de memoria.I learnt the whole lesson by heart.

Beber: to drink     // beberse: to drink up

SpanishEnglish
Yo bebí jugo de naranja.I drank orange juice
Se bebieron todo el jugoThey drank up the juice

Comer:  to eat    / Comerse: to eat up

SpanishEnglish
Ella comió tempranoShe ate early
Me comí la pastaI ate up all the pasta

Decidir: to decide /// Decidirse: to make your mind up

SpanishEnglish
Ellos decidieron irse.They decided to leave.
¡Decídete!Make up your mind!

Llevar: to take    //   Llevarse: to take away

SpanishEnglish
Carlos llevó a los niños a la iglesia.Carlos took the children to the church.
Carlos se llevó a los niños.Carlos took the children away.

VERBOS GENERALMENTE PRONOMINALES

ALGUNOS VERBOS SON GENERALMENTE PRONOMINALES (SOME VERBS ARE USUALLY PRONOMINAL)

Ejemplos

Arrepentirse de: to regret, to repent

SpanishEnglish
Me arrepiento de mis pecadosI repent for my sins

Atreverse a: to dare

SpanishEnglish
No me atrevo a viajar soloI dare not travel alone

Enterarse de: to find out (about)

SpanishEnglish
Me enteré del bochornoI found out about the embarrassment

Quejarse: to complain

SpanishEnglish
Yo nunca me quejo.I never complain.

Rebelarse: rebel (against)

SpanishEnglish
Lo esclavos se rebelanSlaves rebel 

Suicidarse: commit suicide

SpanishEnglish
Ella se suicidóShe committed suicide

Extralimitarse: to cross the line 

SpanishEnglish
No te extralimites, por favor.Don’t cross the line, please.

 

Si deseas aprender más sobre los verbos pronominales, dale clic a la imagen de abajo.

Pronominal Verbs in Spanish

Pronominal verbs

A large number of transitive verbs have pronominal intransitive counterparts. 

acostar: to put someone to bed / acostarse: to go to bed 

SpanishEnglish
Ella acostó al niño en mi camaShe put the child on my bed.
Ella se acostó tempranoShe went to bed early 

casar to marry (transitive) casarse: to get married

SpanishEnglish
¿Te quieres casar conmigo?Do you want to marry me?
Ella se casó ayer (pronominal)She got married yesterday

Verbo pronominal ABRIRSE

 abrir: to open (transitive) abrirse: to open (intransitive) pronominal verbs

SpanishEnglish
Debes abrir la puerta You should open the door
La puerta se abrió solaThe door opened by itself

Someone opened the door. The door was opened by someone. 

acabar: to finish (transitive) acabarse: to end (intransitive) 

SpanishEnglish
Él acabó la salsa de tomateHe finished the ketchup
La salsa de tomate se acabóThe ketchup is finished.

 cerrar: to close (transitive) cerrarse to close (intransitive)

SpanishEnglish
Ellos cerraron la puertaThey closed the door
La puerta se cerró.The door closed by itself.

 despertar: to wake someone up / despertarse: to wake up

SpanishEnglish
Ellos despertaron MaríaThey woke María up
Ellos se despertaron tardeThey woke up late

dormir: to put somebody to sleep / dormirse: to go to sleep (also ‘to sleep’)

SpanishEnglish
Ellos duermen al bebeThey put the baby to sleep
Ellos se durmieron tardeThey went to sleep late

Verbo to fall in love

enamorar: to make someone fall in love / enamorarse: de: to fall in love with 

SpanishEnglish
Él enamoró a MaríaHe made Maria fall in love
Me enamoré de María (pronominal)I fell in love with María

meter: to put in / meterse: to get in, to interfere

SpanishEnglish
No metí la comida en la cajaI didn’t put the food in the box
No te metas en asuntos ajenos. Don’t interfere with other people’s affairs. 

perder: to lose / to miss / perderse: to get lost 

SpanishEnglish
Perdí la citaI missed the appointment
Ella se perdió en la escuelaShe got lost at school

preocupar: to worry somebody / preocuparse to worry

Me encanta preocupar a mi mamá / I love to worry my mum

Me preocupo por mi hija / I worry for my daughter

_____________________________________________________

 presentar: to introduce people / presentarse: to appear unexpectedly 

Les presento a Jose / Let me introduce Jose

José se presentó en la reunión / José appeared unexpectedly at the meeting.

Presentarse: introduce yourself (pronominal)

Puede presentarse, por favor / Could you introduce yourself, please?

_______________________________________________

tirar: to throw, to pull / tirarse: to jump

Tiró el balón. 

He threw the ball. 

Se tiró del balcón. 

He jumped off the balcony. 

________________________________________________ 

vaciar to empty (transitive) vaciarse to empty (intransitive) 


vacié la cuenta. 

I emptied the account. 

Esta aspiradora se vacía sola.
This hoover empties itself. 

________________________________________________

Sometimes the pronominal form of the verb is radically different in meaning: 

VERBOS QUE CAMBIAN DE SIGNIFICADOS

cambiar: to change / cambiarse de: to change clothes, house

 correr: to run / correrse: to be ashamed /to’ come’ (taboo, vulgar; Spain)

desenvolver:  to unwrap / desenvolverse: to get ahead, to be good at something.

despedir: to see someone off, to fire, to sack / despedirse: to say goodbye, to take one’s leave.

empeñar: to pawn, to pledge / empeñarse: to insist on doing something

gastar: to spend / gastarse: to wear out 

llevar: to take, to wear / llevarse: to take with one / to steal / to get along

mudar: to change  / mudarse: to move house

negar: to deny  / negarse a: to refuse to do something 

oponer:  to contrast two views / oponerse: to oppose

Si deseas aprender sobre el gerundio, dale clic a la siguiente imagen:

Reported Speech in Spanish.

Reported speech in Spanish

Reported speech in Spanish.

In this article we are going to talk about direct and indirect speech in Spanish.

The first thing we have to understand is what reported speech in Spanish is and how to use it.

What is indirect speech?

Indirect speech is used to transmit the information that someone says or has said.

Examples:

DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT SPEECH
La estimo muchoDice que la estima mucho
No quiero comerDice que no quiere comer
¿Sabes matemática?Pregunta si sabes matemática

Reported speech in Spanish

To change a sentence from direct to indirect speech, we have to know some steps. (Reported speech in Spanish)

  1. The possessive and personal pronouns change as well as the complement of the verb.
Direct SpeechIndirect Speech
No me dueleDice que no le duele
Mi tía no estáDice que su tía no está
Eso no es de ustedesDice que eso no es de nosotros
  • Changes of the adverbs of place and time.
Direct SpeechIndirect Speech
Estoy desde esta mañana aquíDijo que estaba desde esta mañana allí
Te visito ahoraDijo que te visitaba entonces
  • Changes of  verbal tenses and modes

These changes depend on what verbal tenses and modes we use in the direct speech. For instance:

Present tense of indicative

Present tense of indicative only changes in the imperative form.

Examples:

Direct speech (indicative)PresentIndirect  (indicative)
Duermo muchoDice queduerme mucho
Fui a la escuelaDice quefue a la escuela
Habría tenido un carroDice quehabría tenido un carro

The imperative mode changes to subjunctive in the present tense (Reported speech in Spanish)

Example:

Direct (imperative)Present tenseIndirect (subjunctive)
Duérmete y dejame soloDice quete duermas y le dejes solo
Vete de aquíDice quete vayas de aquí

The subjunctive doesn’t change the verb in the present tense

Direct (subjunctive verb)Present tenseIndirect (subjunctive)
Es probable que lo reviseDice quees probable que lo revise

The rule changes when we talk about the past:

Indicative mode

Direct speechPAST TENSEIndirect speech 
Duermo mucho (presente)Dijo quedormía / duerme mucho (imperfecto, presente) 
Tenía muchos carros (imperfecto)Dijo quetenía muchos carros (imperfecto) 
Fui / había ido al mercado (Pretérito indefinido/ pluscuamperfecto)Dijo quefue / había ido al mercado (indef. o pluscpf) 
He estudiado mucho (Pretérito perfecto)Dijo quehabía estudiado mucho (Pluscuamperfecto) 
Comeré ensalada (futuro)Dijo quecomerá / comería ensalada (futuro o condicional simple) 
Futuro perfecto Habré leído unos 5 librosDijo quehabrá o habría leído… (Fut.o condicional compuesto) 
Iría como a la 1 p.m. (condicional simple)Dijo queiría como a la 1 p.m. (condicional simple) 
Habría tenido mucho (condicional compuesto)Dijo quehabría tenido mucho (condicional compuesto)

lmperative in Reported Speech

Imperative:

Presente:

Siéntate y escucha

Pasado:

Subjunctive: Dijo que te sentaras y escucharas. (from imperative to subjunctive)

SUBJUNCTIVE

From subjunctive to subjunctive: (Reported speech in Spanish)

1.Presente

¡Que hable!  

2. Pasado

 Dijo que hablara.

From subjunctive to subjunctive or indicative (conditional)

Quizás lo sepa Carlos.

Dijo que quizás lo supiera / sabría Carlos.

2. Presente perfecto

Quizás no lo haya comprado

Dijo que quizás no lo hubiera comprado / habría comprado.

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Reported speech in Spanish and English: CLICK IN THE PICTURE BELOW

THERE ARE IN SPANISH AND ENGLISH

perífrasis

How to use “There is / there are” in Spanish?

First of all, let see the meaning of the verb there be in Spanish.

There be means “Haber (hay)” in Spanish and it has almost the same function in both languages. They express the existence of something.

Example:

There is one mistake: Hay un error

There are three chairs: Hay tres sillas.

As you can see they have the same meaning in English and Spanish, but the conjugation is totally different.

We can use “Hay” for plural and singular.

“Hay” has two ways to express the past.

  1. Hubo (pretérito indefinido)
  2. Había (imperfecto)

How can I use “There be” in Spanish?

  1. Hubo is used for short period of action and it is very specific. It doesn’t have any relationship with the present.

Example:

Hubo una fiesta ayer. (There was a party yesterday)

Hubo dos terremotos la semana pasada (There were two earthquakes last week)

  • “Había” (imperfect)  is to describe things, experiences, any situation, etc. It is also used for long periods of action and unspecified time periods.

Example: Había una cola larga de vehículos ayer (There was a long line of cars yesterday)

En la casa de mis padres había dos ventanas grandes y una puerta.  (In my parents’ house, there were two big windows and one door)

In both examples you are describing things and a situation that occurred in the past without any relation with the present.

nnn

  • Ha habido (presente perfecto). The present perfect describes situations that occurred in the recent past, but have a certain relation with the present

Ha habido un accidente en la calle (There has been an accident in the street) (there are in Spanish)

Ha habido dos campañas de vacunación en esta semana (There have been two vacunation campaigns this week)

Clases de inglés y español

there are in Spanish
English and Spanish teacher
  • Habrá (there will be) future.

Habrá un mundo mejor (there will be a better world)

  • Habría (there would be) conditional.

Habría un mundo mejor si las mujeres gobernaran. (There would be a better world if women governed it)

  • Haya, hubiera  (there be) subjunctive

Espero que haya harina and arroz  (I hope there are  flour and rice)

Imagina que hubiera un mundo mejor (imagine if there was a better world)

This mode doesn’t have imperative because it is impersonal. However, there be also means  obligation to do something.

Hay que hacer la tarea (You have to do your homework)

I hope this article “there are in Spanish” has been useful for you.

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Prepositions in Spanish and English

prepositions

Compound prepositions in Spanish and English

To begin with, Compound prepositions are generally adverbs accompanied by prepositions.

For example: Encima is an adverb.

Acerca esa mesa y pon el libro encima.  (Bring that table closer and put the book on it)

ON: encima as an adverb. However, we can use it as a compound preposition if we add the preposition “de”. 

For instance: Pon el libro encima de la mesa. (Put the book on the table)

The uses of some compound prepositions.

Al lado de (next to)

Al lado de expresses that something is near: El banco está al lado del restaurante. (The bank is next to the restaurant).

Alrededor de (around)

Alrededor de indicates something surrounds something else: Ellos estaban alrededor de la mesa. (They were around the table)

Antes de (before) 

Antes de expresses anteriority: Antes de su llegada, ya habíamos comido. (Before his arrival, we had already eaten).

Cerca de (near, close)

Cerca de indicates proximity:  La casa donde vivían mis padres estaba cerca de la alcaldía.

 (The house where my parents lived, was near / close to the town hall)

Debajo de (under) 

Debajo de indicates a lower position:  Los zapatos están debajo de la cama. (The shoes are under the bed).

Note: It is important to understand the differences between the prepositions in Spanish: debajo, abajo, encima and arriba.

In English “debajo” means under, below and beneath

Abajo: down, downstairs

Encima: on

Arriba: Up, upstairs, above. 

Preposiciones DELANTE DE and DENTRO DE

Delante de: In front of

Delante de indicates an anterior position or leading part:

 El carro está delante del garaje. (the The car is in front of the garage)

Dentro de (within, in)

Dentro de  indicates that something is located within a specific place: 

La pelota está dentro de la gaveta

(the The ball is in the drawer) 

Compound prepositions in Spanish “DESPUÉS DE and DETRÁS DE

Después de (After)

a) Después de expresses posteriority:  

Example: Después de comer, se fue a dormir. (After eating, he went to sleep).

Detrás de (Behind)

Detrás de: behind position:  

María se escondió detrás de la nevera. (María hid behind the fridge)

Compound prepositions in Spanish “Encima de, Enfrente de”

Encima de (on)

Encima de: upper position:  ON

Puse la olla sobre la cocina (I put the pot on the stove).

Enfrente de:  Opposite

Enfrente de: the facing position:  In front of / opposite

El jardín está enfrente de la casa. (The garden is in front of the house)

The compound prepositions in Spanish “Fuera de y Lejos de”

Fuera de (outside)

Fuera de  indicates the external space: 

El tío de mi novia está fuera de la iglesia (My girlfriend’s uncle is outside the church).

Lejos de: far from

Lejos de indicates distance: La parada de autobús está lejos de mi casa (The bus stop is far from my house).

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Si deseas conocer más, dale clic a la imagen:

prepositions in Spanish
Aprende la preposiciones de tiempo en inglés y español.

Definite Article in Spanish and English

definite article

Use the definite article in Spanish before titles like Mister, Lady or Mrs.

La señora Infante no está en casa (Mrs Infante isn’t home)

In Spanish we can use the article to talk about a specific lady, but in

English it is derogatory. However, if you use the definite article in Spanish

without any abbreviation or aforementioned title, it can also be derogatory.

Example:

La María está en casa. (The María is home) It is derogatory in both languages.

Why is it very important to study the definite article in Spanish and English.

It is very important to study articles in both languages because the meaning of them changes and what can be bad or dyslogistic for one, can be correct in the other.

2. To tell the days of the week

We use the definite article in Spanish to talk about the days of the week.

El sábado voy al cine (On Saturday, I will go to the cinema)

Los domingos trabajo (I work on Sundays)

NOTE: When days of the week are pluralised such as “domingos” or “sábados”, we use “los”.

No trabajo los sábados.

In many cases, however, this pluralisation is unnoticeable:

Singular: lunes

Plural: lunes 

No trabajo los lunes — I don’t work on Mondays.

No trabajo el lunes — I won’t work this Monday. 

El artículo determinado en inglés

The article “the” and the preposition “on”

In English we use the preposition “on” to talk about the days of the week and in Spanish we use the article “The” (El, los) only in masculine.

3. To tell the time with definite article

What time is it? It is 3 p.m.

¿Qué hora es? Son las 3 de la tarde.

Es la 1 de la mañana (It is 1 a.m.)

All times of day are expressed with “las”, except 1am and 1pm. For instance, “Es la una de la tarde” It’s one in the afternoon. Es la una y media de la mañana. It’s 1.30am.   

In English we don’t use the article to tell the time; but in Spanish we do.

4. The definite article in Spanish as demonstrative: El que, la que, las que, los

que, lo que.

Este vehículo es el que compré la semana pasada.

(This is the car (which/that) I bought last week)

We don’t use the definite article as demonstrative in English.

5. The definite article with possessive value: El de, la de, los de, las

de, lo de.

Este cuaderno es el de José (This is Jose’s notebook)

The definite article in Spanish never indicates possessive value in English.

5. We use the definite articles in Spanish for generalisations.

Me encantan los gatos.  (I like cat)

Las computadoras le estresan a mi mamá.

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Si deseas aprender la traducción de ALTHOUGH en inglés y español, dale clic a la imagen de abajo.

ALTHOUGH EN INGLÉS
TRADUCCIÓN DE ALTHOUGH EN INGLÉS

The subjunctive in Spanish and English

The subjunctive in Spanish and English

THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN THE SPANISH LANGUAGE

The subjunctive in Spanish is complicated and many students don’t understand it easily.

The subjunctive is a mood, rather than a tense.
Forms such as quiera instead of quiero, or vaya instead of voy are examples of the Spanish subjunctive. 

There are some phrases which are always followed by the subjunctive in Spanish. 

Examples of The Subjunctive in Spanish

Examples:

1. Es possible que, es probable que, puede que,… + subjuntivo.

a) Es posible que estudie inglés (I may study English.)

b) Es possible que hubiera ido a tu fiesta si lo hubiera sabido (I may have gone to your party, if I had known about it before)

NOTE: If we want to express doubt, we often use the imperfect subjunctive. The present of subjunctive is frequently used to speak about the future.

Cuando llegue el paquete, te avisaré. (When the package arrives, I will let you know).
Tan pronto que tenga la información, te llamaré. (As soon as I have the information, I will call you). 

b. Normally we use the subjunctive in Spanish when the particle goes before the verb:

Quizás vaya a la fiesta (Maybe I might go to the party)

Posiblemente mañana no tengamos clases (We may not have lessons tomorrow)

There are some of them that can be used in subjunctive or indicative.

Examples:  Tal vez, quizás/ quizá, seguramente, probablemente,… + subjuntivo o indicativo.

NOTE: If you use the particle after the verb, you may use the indicative.

Voy, quizás, mañana a tu fiesta. ( Maybe I will go to your party tomorrow).

We use the subjunctive in Spanish with independent sentences

The independent sentences have only a verb and it is frequently used in subjunctive.

Deseo: (wish)

Ojalá + presente subjuntivo: Possible wishes for present or future.

Ojalá venga el maestro. (I hope the teacher comes)

Ojalá llegue a tiempo. (I hope I arrives on time)

Ojalá + presente perfecto subjuntivo: It expresses a desire of what we are yet to know.

Ojalá haya aprobado. (I hope I have passed it)

Ojalá + pretérito imperfecto subjuntivo: Impossible or unlikely desire for the present or future.

Ojalá viniera el maestro. (I wish the teacher came)

Ojalá + pretérito pluscuamperfecto: It is for an impossible desire in  the past.

Ojalá hubiera venido el maestro ayer. (I wish the teacher had come yesterday)

the subjunctive in spanish
Learn about the subjunctive in Spanish

VIDEO ABOUT HOW TO USE OJALÁ IN SPANISH

DESEO: QUE

Que + presente subjuntivo: ¡Que gane el mejor! May the best man win. 

Que + pret. Perfecto: Que haya aprobado, Dios mío! It has a sense of supplication.
I really pray to God that I have passed.

Que + pret. Imperfecto: The first part of the sentence is omitted.

Que viniera mi padre. (I wish with all my heart (this part is omitted) that my father would come. 

Que + pret. Pluscuamperfecto: It has no wish value. It means “no me importa” in the past.

Pedro ha suspendido el examen de conducir.- Que se hubiera fijado más-
Pedro has failed his driving test, he should have paid more attention. 

ASÍ: It is the same to as “ojalá” , but its meaning is totally negative. (The subjunctive in Spanish)

Así te mueras. I hope you die

Así te hubieras muerto. I wish you had died. 

AH SI / Quién to talk about impossible wishes.

Ah si vivierais en Madrid (nos veríamos a menudo) – I wish you lived in Madrid, (that way we could see each other often).

Quién is used to talk about your wishes.

Quién tuviera 20 años. – How I’d love to be 20!

Wishes without any particles.

Dios te oiga!¡Dios te oiga! May God hear you

Viva el Rey!¡Viva el Rey! Long live the King.

I hope this article “the subjunctive in spanish” has been useful for you.

(Espero que este artículo “El subjuntivo en español” haya sido útil para ti).

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If you want to learn how to use STILL in English and Spanish, Click on the picture below.

Still en inglés
Still en inglés y español

Compound Sentences in Spanish and English

complex sentence / compound sentences / compound sentence examples

Learn all about    compound sentences / compound sentence examples/ complex sentence.

Compound Sentences in Spanish and English

Rules:

a) If the verb 1 is affirmative, the second verb must be indicative.

b) If the verb 1 is negative, the second verb must go in subjunctive.

c) If both verbs have the same subjects, the second one must go in infinitive.

GROUP NUMBER 1.  compound sentences

Verbos de entendimientos: (Understanding verbs)

Creer (to believe), pensar (to think), entender (to understand), opinar (to opine), etc.

  1. Structure: V1 +  QUE  +  V2

Example:

Example of rule a

Pienso (+) que ella está (indicative) molesta conmigo.

I think she is annoyed with me.

Example of rule b

No pienso (-) que ella esté (subjunctive) molesta conmigo.

I don’t think she is annoyed with me.

Rule c, explanation

Structure: V1 + INFINITE (if they have the same subject).

Pienso (+) ser (infinitive) feliz con mi familia. 

I plan to be happy with my family. 

No pienso (-) ser (infinitive) feliz con mi familia.

I don’t plan to be happy with my family.  

Another example of rule a:

Creo (+) que el lunes mi hermano tiene (indicative) que viajar (I believe that my brother has to travel on Monday)

Another example of rule b:

No creo (-) que el lunes mi hermano tenga (subjunctive)  que viajar (I don’t believe that my brother has to travel on Monday)

complex sentence
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COMPOUND SENTENCES LANGUAGE VERBS

Verbos de lengua: (Language verbs). compound sentences

Contar (to tell), afirmar (to affirm), narrar (to narrate), escribir (to write), etc.

Example:

El ministro afirmó (+) que el presidente está (indicative) muerto. (The minister stated that the president is dead).

El ministro no afirmó (-) que el presidente esté (subjunctive)   muerto. (The minister didn’t state that the president is dead).

Verbos de percepción física: (Verbs of physical perception)

Ver (to see), oír (to hear) escuchar (to listen) percibir (to perceive) mirar (to look at), etc.

Example:

Veo (+) que hoy estás (indicative) triste

No (-) veo que hoy estés (subjunctive)   triste.

GROUP NUMBER 2 compound sentences

Rule: The second verb is always in subjunctive. But the second verb must go in infinitive if they have the same subject.

Verbos de Sentimiento u Opinion: (Verbs of Sentiment or Opinion)

Gustar (to like), encantar (to enchant) avergonzarse (to embarrass)  alegrarse (to rejoice) tener miedo (be afraid), etc.

Example:

Me alegra que estés bien. (This sentence has different subjects and the second verb must use subjunctive)

I am happy that you are okay. 

No me alegra que estés bien. (The second verb is in subjunctive because the subjects are different)

I am not happy that you are ok. 

Me alegra verte de nuevo. (This sentence has just one subject and second verb goes in infinitive).

I am happy to see you again.

No me alegra verte de nuevo. (This sentence has just one subject and second verb goes in infinitive).

I am not happy to see you again.

VERBS of WILL and DESIRE

Verbos de voluntad o deseo:  (Verbs of will and desire) compound sentences

Querer (to want),  desear (to wish,) preferir (to prefer),  oponerse a (to oppose), etc

Example:

What one wants for others:

Quiero que vayas a España ahora. (I want you to go to Spain)

No quiero que vayas a España ahora. (I don’t want you to go to Spain)

Example:

What one wants for oneself:

Quiero ir a España ahora. (I want to go to Spain)

No quiero ir a España ahora. (I don’t want to go to Spain)

Verbs of Mandate, Order, Begging, Advice, Prohibition or Permission.

Verbos de Mandato, Orden, Ruego, Consejo, Prohibición o Permiso: (Verbs of Mandate, Order, Begging,  Advice, Prohibition or Permission)

Ordenar (to order), mandar (to command), aconsejar (to advise), animar a (to encourage) consentir (to spoil), intentar (attempt), prohibir (to prohibit), etc.

compound sentence example:

Te manda a que trabajes todos los días.  (He commands you to work every day)

No te manda a que trabajes todos los días. (He doesn’t command you to work every day)

Me animo a trabajar todos los días. (I encourage myself to work every day)

Note: When I express an order, I normally use the subjunctive. 

Diles a mis empleados que vengan en 15 minutos. (Tell my employees to come here in 15 minutes)

Les ordeno que trabajen 12 horas al día. (I order you to work 12 hours a day)

Note: The order can only affect the main verb.

No le digas a tu mamá que hoy voy a salir a comer. (Don´t tell your mother I am going to eat out today)

————————————————————————————– More about compound sentences

Verbs Ser, Estar, Parecer + Adjetivo, Sustantivo, Adverbio + Subjuntivo

SER, ESTAR, PARECER + ADJETIVO + SUSTANTIVO + ADVERBIO + SUBJUNTIVO

EXPLAIN STRUCTURE + USE

Verbs such as ser, estar, parecer can be combined with an adjective, then que, then a subject, then a verb in the subjunctive.

This structure is used to give one’s opinion on a matter. 

Example:

(No) es bueno que veas televisión todo el día. (It is (not) good for you to watch TV all day long)

(No) está bien que hagas los ejercicios.  (It’s (not) okay for you to do the exercises).

(No) parece mentira que tu hijo haya crecido tan rápido. (It seems incredible that your son has grown up so fast)

¿Te parece bien que vayamos al cine esta noche? (Does going to the cinema tonight seem like a good idea to you?)

Excepciones:  Ser evidente, ser obvio, estar claro, es seguro.

En afirmativo: INDICATIVO

If the first verb is positive, the following verb will be in indicative. 

En negativo: SUBJUNTIVO.

If the first verb is negative, the following verb will be in subjunctive.

 (+) 

(indicative) 

 (-) 

(subjunctive)   

Es obvio (+) que hoy va (indicative) a llover  (It is obvious that today it is going to rain)

No es obvio  (-)  que hoy vaya (subjunctive) a llover (It is not obvious that today it is going to rain).

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Learn about subjunctive: click here

complex sentence
Book a lesson and learn more about complex sentence and compound sentence examples.

Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct and Indirect Speech in Spanish

Direct and Indirect Speech in Spanish.

What is indirect speech?

It consists of reproducing what someone says or has said.

Examples:

Direct Speech: “La quiero mucho” (I love her very much).

Indirect Speech: Dice que la quiere mucho (He says that he loves her very much).

Direct: ¿Sabes conducir? (Do you know how to drive?)

Indirect: Andrés pregunta si sabes conducir (Andrés asks if you know how to drive).

Changing direct speech into indirect speech requires some changes:

  1. Change of pronoun: object, personal, possessive, etc.

Example:

Direct: No me voy. (I am not leaving).

Indirect: Dice que no se va (He says he is not leaving).

Direct: Eso no es tuyo (That is not yours).

Indirect:  Dice que no es mío (He says that that is not mine).

Changes of adverbs of place and time. (Direct and Indirect Speech)

  1. Changes of adverbs of place and time. (Direct and Indirect Speech)

Direct: Paso demasiado tiempo aquí (I spend too much time here)

Indirect: Dijo que pasaba demasiado tiempo allí. (He said he spent too much time there)

  1. Verbal changes (mood and tense).

Some verbal tenses change; however, some of them never change.

Examples:

Direct and Indirect Speech in indicative. (Present tense) 

Direct and Indirect Speech in indicative. (Present tense) 

Dice que…

NOTE: Dice is the present verb which introduces all the indirect speech in these examples.

Present tense

Direct speech: Como demasiado (I eat too much).

Indirect speech: Él dice que come demasiado (He says he eats too much).

Imperfect

Tenía muchos coches: (He had a lot of cars).

Dice que tenía muchos coches. (He says he had a lot of cars).

Indefinite past tense: 

Fui al supermercado. (I went to the supermarket).

Dice que fue al supermercado (He says he went to the supermarket).

Present perfect in English and pretérito perfecto en español (Direct and Indirect Speech)

He trabajado poco. (I have worked very little).

Dice que ha trabajado poco. (He says he has worked very little).

Future: No iré a la fiesta (I will not go to the party).

Dice que no irá a la fiesta (He says that he won’t go to the party).

Future Perfect

Future perfect in English and futuro perfecto in Spanish: 

Habré visto unos 10 videos para las 5pm. (I will have watched about 10 videos by 5pm).

Dice que habrá visto unos 10 videos para las 5pm (He says he will have watched about 10 videos by 5pm).

Conditional (would)

I would like a pizza

Me gustaría una pizza. 

Dice que le gustaría una pizza.

He says he would like a pizza. 

Second conditional

Si él tuviera un trabajo, iría a trabajar como a las 2 p.m. 

(If he had a job, he would go to work at about 2 pm).

Dice que si tuviera un trabajo, iría a trabajar como a las 2 de la tarde.

(He says that if he had a job, he would go to work at around two in the afternoon).

Compound Conditional

Compound conditional: (Direct and Indirect Speech)

Él habría tenido mucho dinero.

(He would have had a lot of money).

Él dice que habría tenido mucho dinero.

(He says that he would have had a lot of money).

Imperative:

Direct speech: Cállate y déjame dormir.

(Shut up and let me sleep).

Indirect speech: Dice que te calles y lo dejes dormir

(He told you to shut up and let him sleep).

Subjunctive: 

Quizás vaya a la fiesta. (I may go to the party)

Dijo que quizás vaya a la fiesta. (He says that he may go to the party).

Past tense: Dijo que

Note: present indicative tense can change into present or imperfect in indirect speech.

Present tense:  (Direct and Indirect Speech)

For example: Voy al supermercado. (I am going to the supermarket)

Dijo que va (present) al supermercado (He said he/she is going to the supermarket).

Dijo que iba (imperfect) al supermercado (He said he/she was going to the supermarket).

Imperfect

Imperfect:  

Tenía muchos coches (He had many cars)

Dijo que tenía muchos coches (He said that he had many cars).

Present perfect in English and pretérito perfecto en español:

He viajado poco (I have travelled very little).

Dijo que había viajado poco (He said (that) he had travelled very little).

Future:

Iré de pesca (I will go fishing)

Dijo que irá / iría de pesca (He said he will/would go fishing)

Perfect future:

Habré visto unos 10 videos (I will have watched about 10 videos).

Dijo que habrá / habría visto 10 videos (He said he will/would have watched about 10 videos).

Simple conditional:

Llegaría a las 5 de la mañana (He would arrive at 5 in the morning)

Dijo que llegaría a las 5 de la mañana. (He said that he would arrive at 5 in the morning).

Compound Conditional

Habría ganado bastante (He would have won a lot).

Dijo que habría ganado bastante (He said that he would have won a lot).

Imperative:

Cállate y déjame dormir: (Shut up and let me sleep)

Dijo que te callaras y lo dejaras dormir (He told you to shut up and let him sleep)

No vengas ahora: (Don’t come now)

Dijo que no vinieras ahora (He told you not to come now)

Subjunctive

¡Que cante! (Let him sing).

Dijo que cantara (He told you to sing).

Quizás lo sepa Juan (Maybe Juan knows about it).

If you want to study more about “Reported Speech in Spanish and English”, Click in the image below.

Reported Speech en inglés
Conoce el Reported Speech en inglés.

I hope this articleDirect and Indirect Speech” has been useful for you.

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Los pronombres LO y LA Y LE

artículo neutro

Los pronombres la, las, lo, los, le y les en español e inglés

Quizás te preguntes, ¿qué es un pronombre? (You may ask, what is a pronoun?)

Un pronombre sustituye un nombre. Por ejemplo: (A pronoun replaces a name. For example:)

¿Te comiste la pizza? Sí me la comí. (Do you eat pizza? Yes, I ate it)

La es el pronombre que sustituye “la pizza” y lo usamos para no repetir la misma palabra.

(“La” is the pronoun that replaces “la pizza” and we use it in order to not repeat the same word).

Veamos qué es un pronombre de objeto directo y objeto indirecto.

Let’s see what a direct object and an indirect object are.

PRONOMBREGÉNEROSINGULARPLURAL
Compl. directo /direct objectmasculino /masculinelo (it) 
(le solo para masculino en España)
(Le is for a masculine person in Spain)
EjemploLe llamé (male)I called him
La llamé (female)
I called her



LE es para femenino y masculino en Latinoamérica.
Le llamé can be: 
“I called her or I called him”
Le is for male and female people in Latin America.
los  (them)
Compl. directodirect objectfemeninola (her)La llamé / I called herlas (them) Las llamé / I called them
Compl. directo / direct objectLo es complemento neutro según la RAE, pero LO es neutro como artículo.

Neutro: Lo guapa / lo guapo

Lo como complemento directo es masculino.

¿Compraste el coche?
Sí, lo compré.

Lo: masculino
LO como artículo neutro.
No me había dado cuenta de LO guapa que era
(I hadn’t realized how attractive she was).
No me había dado cuenta de LO guapo que era.
(I hadn’t realized how attractive he was).
No tiene plural
Compl. indirecto / indirect objectinvariable
Para masculino y femenino
le (to her: a ella)
I sent the gift to her.
Le envié el regalo a ella.____________
(LE: to him: a él)
I sent the gift to him.
Le envié el regalo a él.
les (to them)
Les envié el regalo a ellas.
I sent the gift to them.
_____________
Les envié el regalo a ellos.
I sent the gift to them.
forma reflexivainvariablese 
Se llama María / Her name is María
Se llama José / His name is José
se
Se llaman María y Paulina.

Their names are María and Paulina.

Se llaman José. /Their name is José.

El objeto directo es la persona o cosa que recibe la acción del verbo y son “la, las, lo, los” .

The direct object is the person or thing that receives the action of the verb and they are: la, las, lo, los

Ejemplo.

¿Has visto a María? Sí la he visto. 

(Have you seen María? Yes, I have seen her)

La: pronombre de objeto directo de María, ya que recibe directamente la acción del verbo.

La: María’s direct object pronoun, since she receives the action of the verb directly.

¿Has visto a los muchachos? Sí, los he visto. 

Have you seen the boys? Yes, I have seen them.

Los: pronombre de objeto directo de “muchachos”, ya que ellos reciben la acción directa del verbo.

Los: direct object pronoun of “muchachos”, as they receive the direct action of the verb.

LOS PRONOMBRES DE OBJETO INDIRECTO / INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS

Los pronombres de objeto indirecto en español son le y les con independencia de género y reciben la acción del verbo indirectamente.

Indirect object pronouns in Spanish are LE and LES regardless of gender and they receive the action of the verb indirectly.

Ejemplo:

¿Llamaste a María para decirle la verdad? Sí, le dije la verdad?

Did you call María to tell her the truth?  Yes, I told her the truth.

Le: es el objeto indirecto “María” 

“La verdad” es el objeto directo.

¿Es necesario que haya un objeto directo en la oración para usar LE?

Does there need to be a direct object in the sentence to use LE?

Sí, es necesario. A no ser que LE sea el objeto directo.

Yes, it is necessary. Unless LE is the direct object.

En algunas zonas de España, “Le” también funciona como un pronombre de objeto directo.

In some parts of Spain, “LE” is also used as a direct object pronoun.

Ejemplos del pronombre LE

¿Has visto a Carlos? Sí, le vi ayer en la plaza. (Le se usa con complemento directo solo para el masculino singular en España)

Example:

Have you seen Carlos? Yes, I saw him yesterday in the square (LE is used as the direct object pronoun only for the masculine singular in Spain).

¿Has visto a Carlos y a José? Sí les he visto en la plaza (incorrecto).

los he visto en la plaza (correcto).

Have you seen Carlos and José? Yes, I have seen to them in the square (incorrect).

Yes, I have seen them in the square (correct).

Note: Si aparece después del verbo, se une a este. En las regiones no leístas, se considera incorrecto el uso de «le» o «les» como pronombres de complemento directo.

El término “regiones leístas” se refiere a aquellas zonas que usan “le” como pronombre de objeto directo. 

Note: If LE appears after the verb, it is joined to the verb. In non leísta regions, it is considered incorrect to use “le” or “les” as direct complement pronouns.

Pero sí se puede decir: “espero verles de nuevo”.  (¿Cómo explicar esto?)  ¿les es indirecto o directo?

But you can say: “I hope to see you again”.  (How to explain this?) Is LES indirect or direct?

Verles (en este caso LES es objeto directo y se puede usar en Latinoamérica) Pero también se puede decir espero verlos.

Verles (in this case LES is a direct object and can be used in Latin America) But you can also say: espero verlos.

Veamos más ejemplos con el pronombre indirecto.

Let’s see more examples of indirect objects.

Le pedí disculpas a mi padre. 

I apologised to my father

Le: es mi padre   / Le: is my father

disculpas: objeto directo (las)

apologies: direct  object (las)

A veces no es necesario colocar el pronombre de objeto indirecto dos veces.

Sometimes it is not necessary to use the indirect object pronoun twice.

Ya con decir: “Le pedí disculpas” se sobreentiende.

Saying: “I apologised to him” is enough.

¿Tu padre se merece tus disculpas? Does your father deserve an apology from you?

Sí, se las merece. / Yes, he deserves it.

Cuando en una oración se encuentra el objeto directo y objeto indirecto juntos LE o LES cambian por SE.

When the direct object and indirect object are found together in a sentence, LE or LES is changed to SE.

Se: mi padre (objeto indirecto)

las: disculpas (objeto directo)

Sí, se las merece.  (Yes, he deserves them).

Veamos otro ejemplo:
Let’s see another example 

Le dije a su hermana que viniera.
I told his sister to come here. 

Le: objeto indirecto (su hermana)
Le: indirect object (his sister)

que viniera: objeto directo (la información, el asunto)

to come: direct object (the information, the topic)

Se lo dije.

I told her it. 

Se: objeto indirecto (a ella)
Se: indirect object (to her)

lo: el asunto
lo: the topic

Veamos algunos ejemplos del pronombre neutro
Let’s see some examples of the neutral pronoun. 

Hijo, debes estudiar para la prueba mañana.
Son, you have to study for the exam tomorrow. 

Lo sé, mamá.
I know, mum. 

Lo es el pronombre neutro y sustituye la frase “debes estudiar para la prueba mañana”.

Lo is the neutral pronoun which replaces the phrase “debes estudiar para la prueba mañana”.

¿Supiste que llegó azúcar al supermercado?
Did you know that the sugar arrived in the supermarket? 

No, no lo sabía.
No, I didn’t know. 

Lo: pronombre neutro (indica la información dada por el hablante).

Lo: neutral pronoun (indicates the information given by the speaker)

Si deseas aprender más sobre los artículos determinados, dale clic a la imagen de abajo.

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