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Compound Sentences in Spanish and English

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Compound Sentences in Spanish and English

Rules:

a) If the verb 1 is affirmative, the second verb must be indicative.

b) If the verb 1 is negative, the second verb must go in subjunctive.

c) If both verbs have the same subjects, the second one must go in infinitive.

GROUP NUMBER 1.  compound sentences

Verbos de entendimientos: (Understanding verbs)

Creer (to believe), pensar (to think), entender (to understand), opinar (to opine), etc.

  1. Structure: V1 +  QUE  +  V2

Example:

Example of rule a

Pienso (+) que ella está (indicative) molesta conmigo.

I think she is annoyed with me.

Example of rule b

No pienso (-) que ella esté (subjunctive) molesta conmigo.

I don’t think she is annoyed with me.

Rule c, explanation

Structure: V1 + INFINITE (if they have the same subject).

Pienso (+) ser (infinitive) feliz con mi familia. 

I plan to be happy with my family. 

No pienso (-) ser (infinitive) feliz con mi familia.

I don’t plan to be happy with my family.  

Another example of rule a:

Creo (+) que el lunes mi hermano tiene (indicative) que viajar (I believe that my brother has to travel on Monday)

Another example of rule b:

No creo (-) que el lunes mi hermano tenga (subjunctive)  que viajar (I don’t believe that my brother has to travel on Monday)

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COMPOUND SENTENCES LANGUAGE VERBS

Verbos de lengua: (Language verbs). compound sentences

Contar (to tell), afirmar (to affirm), narrar (to narrate), escribir (to write), etc.

Example:

El ministro afirmó (+) que el presidente está (indicative) muerto. (The minister stated that the president is dead).

El ministro no afirmó (-) que el presidente esté (subjunctive)   muerto. (The minister didn’t state that the president is dead).

Verbos de percepción física: (Verbs of physical perception)

Ver (to see), oír (to hear) escuchar (to listen) percibir (to perceive) mirar (to look at), etc.

Example:

Veo (+) que hoy estás (indicative) triste

No (-) veo que hoy estés (subjunctive)   triste.

GROUP NUMBER 2 compound sentences

Rule: The second verb is always in subjunctive. But the second verb must go in infinitive if they have the same subject.

Verbos de Sentimiento u Opinion: (Verbs of Sentiment or Opinion)

Gustar (to like), encantar (to enchant) avergonzarse (to embarrass)  alegrarse (to rejoice) tener miedo (be afraid), etc.

Example:

Me alegra que estés bien. (This sentence has different subjects and the second verb must use subjunctive)

I am happy that you are okay. 

No me alegra que estés bien. (The second verb is in subjunctive because the subjects are different)

I am not happy that you are ok. 

Me alegra verte de nuevo. (This sentence has just one subject and second verb goes in infinitive).

I am happy to see you again.

No me alegra verte de nuevo. (This sentence has just one subject and second verb goes in infinitive).

I am not happy to see you again.

VERBS of WILL and DESIRE

Verbos de voluntad o deseo:  (Verbs of will and desire) compound sentences

Querer (to want),  desear (to wish,) preferir (to prefer),  oponerse a (to oppose), etc

Example:

What one wants for others:

Quiero que vayas a España ahora. (I want you to go to Spain)

No quiero que vayas a España ahora. (I don’t want you to go to Spain)

Example:

What one wants for oneself:

Quiero ir a España ahora. (I want to go to Spain)

No quiero ir a España ahora. (I don’t want to go to Spain)

Verbs of Mandate, Order, Begging, Advice, Prohibition or Permission.

Verbos de Mandato, Orden, Ruego, Consejo, Prohibición o Permiso: (Verbs of Mandate, Order, Begging,  Advice, Prohibition or Permission)

Ordenar (to order), mandar (to command), aconsejar (to advise), animar a (to encourage) consentir (to spoil), intentar (attempt), prohibir (to prohibit), etc.

compound sentence example:

Te manda a que trabajes todos los días.  (He commands you to work every day)

No te manda a que trabajes todos los días. (He doesn’t command you to work every day)

Me animo a trabajar todos los días. (I encourage myself to work every day)

Note: When I express an order, I normally use the subjunctive. 

Diles a mis empleados que vengan en 15 minutos. (Tell my employees to come here in 15 minutes)

Les ordeno que trabajen 12 horas al día. (I order you to work 12 hours a day)

Note: The order can only affect the main verb.

No le digas a tu mamá que hoy voy a salir a comer. (Don´t tell your mother I am going to eat out today)

————————————————————————————– More about compound sentences

Verbs Ser, Estar, Parecer + Adjetivo, Sustantivo, Adverbio + Subjuntivo

SER, ESTAR, PARECER + ADJETIVO + SUSTANTIVO + ADVERBIO + SUBJUNTIVO

EXPLAIN STRUCTURE + USE

Verbs such as ser, estar, parecer can be combined with an adjective, then que, then a subject, then a verb in the subjunctive.

This structure is used to give one’s opinion on a matter. 

Example:

(No) es bueno que veas televisión todo el día. (It is (not) good for you to watch TV all day long)

(No) está bien que hagas los ejercicios.  (It’s (not) okay for you to do the exercises).

(No) parece mentira que tu hijo haya crecido tan rápido. (It seems incredible that your son has grown up so fast)

¿Te parece bien que vayamos al cine esta noche? (Does going to the cinema tonight seem like a good idea to you?)

Excepciones:  Ser evidente, ser obvio, estar claro, es seguro.

En afirmativo: INDICATIVO

If the first verb is positive, the following verb will be in indicative. 

En negativo: SUBJUNTIVO.

If the first verb is negative, the following verb will be in subjunctive.

 (+) 

(indicative) 

 (-) 

(subjunctive)   

Es obvio (+) que hoy va (indicative) a llover  (It is obvious that today it is going to rain)

No es obvio  (-)  que hoy vaya (subjunctive) a llover (It is not obvious that today it is going to rain).

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